Potato and tubers - WONDER

Fertilizer application rates and recommendation for potato and root crops

  • To exact determination and calculation the required amount of fertilizer application, it is recommended to conduct soil agrochemical analysis, taking into account the planned yield indicators
  • We recommend to discuss nutritional special aspects with your regional manager

BBCH 00
Seed processing

BBCH 14-19
4 or more true leaves

BBCH 31-39
Closure of rows

BBCH 51-59
Budding

BBCH 71-79
Fruit and seeds formation

BBCH 00
Seed processing

BBCH 00
Seed processing

In this macro stage, you need to pay attention to the germination of the seeds. Variety similarity at 60-80%, similarity of hybrids at 92-98%. Field similarity is influenced by such qualities as the selection of high-quality seed, quality seedbed preparation, seeding technique, seed treatment with micronutrients and favorable weather conditions.

Germination is the beginning of plant development. The duration of this stage starts from dormancy to the appearance of sprouts, i.e. until the first leaf sheath with a shoot appears on the soil surface. During seed germination, water is absorbed by the embryo, resulting in rehydration and cell expansion. Soon after water absorption or absorption begins, the respiration rate increases, and various metabolic processes that had been suspended or greatly reduced during the resting period are restored. These events are associated with structural changes in the organelles (membrane bodies responsible for metabolism) in the cells of the embryo.

Since the spare materials are partially in an insoluble form, namely in the form of starch grains, protein granules, lipid droplets, etc., most of the early metabolism of seedlings is associated with the mobilization of these materials and the delivery or transfer of products to active sites. Stocks outside the embryo are digested by enzymes secreted by the embryo, and in some cases also by special endosperm cells. Active embryo growth, except that resulting from swelling, usually begins with the emergence of a primary root, known as a seed root, although in some species (e.g., coconut) a shoot or perunus emerges first.

Early growth depends mainly on cell expansion, but within a short time cell division begins in the root and young shoot, and then growth and subsequent organ formation (organogenesis) are based on the usual combination of increasing cell number and increasing individual cells.

Wonder Leaf Wonder Micro
  • Form: Liquid
  • Packaging: 1l, 5 l, 20 l, 1000 l
4%

N

Total Nitrogen

4%

MgO

Magnesium oxide

10%

SO₃

Sulfur trioxide

0,5%

B

Boron

0,5%

Cu

Copper сhelate

0,5%

Zn

Zink chelate

0,6%

Fe

Iron chelat

0,9%

Mn

Manganese chelate

5,2%

Amino acids

Vegetable origin

5%

Organic acids

3,6

pH

1,28

Density

(kg/l)

Your future harvest in this package!

BBCH 14-19
4 or more true leaves

BBCH 14-19
4 or more true leaves

In this macro stage, you need to pay attention to the germination of the seeds. Variety similarity at 60-80%, similarity of hybrids 92-98%. Factors such as the selection of high-quality seed, qualitatively prepared seed bed, seeding technique, seed treatment with micronutrients and favorable weather conditions have an impact on field similarity. Germination is the beginning of plant development. Its duration starts from dormancy to the appearance of shoots, that is, until the sheath of the first leaf with a shoot appears on the soil surface.

During seed germination, water is absorbed by the embryo, resulting in rehydration and cell expansion. Soon after water absorption or absorption begins, the respiration rate increases, and various metabolic processes that had been suspended or greatly reduced during the resting period are restored. These events are associated with structural changes in the organelles (membrane bodies responsible for metabolism) in the cells of the embryo.

For the reason that spare materials are partially in an insoluble form, namely in the form of starch grains, protein granules, lipid droplets, etc., most of the early metabolism of seedlings is associated with the mobilization of these materials and the delivery or transfer of products to active sites. Stocks outside the embryo are digested by enzymes secreted by the embryo, and in some cases also by special endosperm cells. Active embryo growth, except that resulting from swelling, usually begins with the emergence of a primary root, known as a seed root, although in some species (e.g., coconut) a shoot or perunus emerges first.

Early growth depends mainly on cell expansion, but within a short time cell division begins in the root and young shoot, and then growth and subsequent organ formation (organogenesis) are based on the usual combination of increasing cell number and increasing individual cells.

Wonder Leaf Wonder Micro
  • Form: Liquid
  • Packaging: 1l, 5 l, 20 l, 1000 l
4%

N

Total Nitrogen

4%

MgO

Magnesium oxide

10%

SO₃

Sulfur trioxide

0,5%

B

Boron

0,5%

Cu

Copper сhelate

0,5%

Zn

Zink chelate

0,6%

Fe

Iron chelat

0,9%

Mn

Manganese chelate

5,2%

Amino acids

Vegetable origin

5%

Organic acids

3,6

pH

1,28

Density

(kg/l)

Your future harvest in this package!

Wonder Leaf Mono Mo 3
  • Form: Liquid
  • Packaging: 1l, 5 l, 20 l, 1000 l
3%

Mo

Molybdenum

3%

N

General nitrogen

0,5%

B

Boron

0,5%

Zn

Zink chelate

4,3%

Amino acids

Vegetable origin

15%

Organic acids

3,8

pH

1,15

Density

(kg/l)

Your future harvest in this package!

Wonder Leaf Mono Zn 8
  • Form: Liquid
  • Packaging: 1l, 5 l, 20 l, 1000 l
8%

Zn

Zinc chelate

5%

N

Total Nitrogen

10%

SO₃

Sulfur trioxide

2,5%

Amino acids

Vegetable origin

8%

Organic acids

3,9

pH

1,33

Density

(kg/l)

Your future harvest in this package!

Wonder Leaf Mono Mn 11
  • Form: Liquid
  • Packaging: 1l, 5 l, 20 l, 1000 l
11%

Mn

Manganese chelate

2%

N

Total Nitrogen

10%

SO₃

Sulfur trioxide

1,4%

Amino acids

Vegetable origin

3,5

pH

1,41

Density

(kg/l)

Your future harvest in this package!

Wonder Leaf Amino 43
  • Form: Liquid
  • Packaging: 1l, 5 l, 20 l, 1000 l
43%

Amino acids

Vegetable origin

6,7

pH

1,15

Density

(kg/l)

Your future harvest in this package!

BBCH 31-39
Closure of rows

BBCH 31-39
Closure of rows

In this macro stage, the formation of second-order growth cones, which are formed from the available number of flowers in the inflorescence with the laying down of the covering organs of the flower, also occurs the formation of anthers (microsporogenesis) and stigmas (megasporogenesis) and the creation of a greater number of synchronously developed productive stems. Processes such as intensive organ growth, the formation of eggs and pollen grains take place.

Applying nitrogen and phosphorus fertilizers can increase the number of flowers in an inflorescence. Although the structural organization of the vascular plant is relatively loose, the development of different parts is well coordinated. Control depends on the movement of chemicals, including nutrients and hormones. An example of correlation is shoot and root growth. The increase in the aerial part is accompanied by an increased need for water, minerals and mechanical support, which are satisfied by the coordinated growth of the root system. Several factors seem to be involved in control, as the shoot and the root affect each other mutually. The root depends on the shoot for organic nutrients, just as the shoot depends on the root for water and inorganic nutrients, and thus the flow of ordinary nutrients must play a role. However, more specific control can be provided by supplying the nutrients needed in very small quantities.

The root depends on the shoot for certain vitamins, and changes in supply reflecting the metabolic state of the above-ground parts can also affect root growth. In addition, hormonal factors affecting cell division pass upward from the root to the stem; although the exact role of hormones, is not yet established with certainty, that is, they may be one way in which the root system can influence the activity of the shoot apex. Control of secondary thickening is another important example of growth correlation. As the size of the shoot system increases, the need for both greater mechanical support and enhanced transport of water, minerals, and elements is met by increased coverage of the stem through the activity of the vascular cambium. As a rule, the cambium of trees in temperate zones is most active in spring, when buds are budding and shoots are sprouting, creating a need for nutrients.

Cell division starts on each shoot and then spreads out from it. The terminal bud stimulates the cambium for rapid division through the action of two groups of plant hormones: auxins and gibberellins. Inhibition of lateral buds, another example of a correlated growth reaction, illustrates a reaction opposite to that occurring when controlling cambial activity.

Lateral buds are generally depressed, as axillary shoots grow slower or do not grow at all, while the terminal bud is active. This so-called apical dominance is responsible for the characteristic unit of trunk growth that is seen in many conifers and herbaceous plants, such as the mallow. Weaker dominance leads to a form with multiple branching. The fact that the lateral or axillary buds become more active when the terminal bud is removed is evidence of hormonal control. The flow of auxin from the shoot apex is partly responsible for inhibiting the axillary buds.

The nutritional status of the plant also plays a role; vervet dominance is strong when mineral supply and light are insufficient. For the reason that axillary buds are released from inhibition by treatment with substances that stimulate cell division (cytokinins), it has been suggested that these substances are also involved in the regulation of axillary bud activity.

Wonder Leaf Wonder Macro
  • Form: Liquid
  • Packaging: 1l, 5 l, 20 l, 1000 l
10%

N

Total Nitrogen

10%

P₂O₅

Phosphorus pentoxide water soluble

10%

K₂O

Potassium oxide

1%

Organic acids

0,5%

MgO

Magnesium oxide

3%

Amino acids

Vegetable origin

4,3

pH

1,25

Density

(kg/l)

Your future harvest in this package!

Wonder Leaf Wonder Micro
  • Form: Liquid
  • Packaging: 1l, 5 l, 20 l, 1000 l
4%

N

Total Nitrogen

4%

MgO

Magnesium oxide

10%

SO₃

Sulfur trioxide

0,5%

B

Boron

0,5%

Cu

Copper сhelate

0,5%

Zn

Zink chelate

0,6%

Fe

Iron chelat

0,9%

Mn

Manganese chelate

5,2%

Amino acids

Vegetable origin

5%

Organic acids

3,6

pH

1,28

Density

(kg/l)

Your future harvest in this package!

Wonder Leaf Mono Mo 3
  • Form: Liquid
  • Packaging: 1l, 5 l, 20 l, 1000 l
3%

Mo

Molybdenum

3%

N

General nitrogen

0,5%

B

Boron

0,5%

Zn

Zink chelate

4,3%

Amino acids

Vegetable origin

15%

Organic acids

3,8

pH

1,15

Density

(kg/l)

Your future harvest in this package!

Wonder Leaf Mono Zn 8
  • Form: Liquid
  • Packaging: 1l, 5 l, 20 l, 1000 l
8%

Zn

Zinc chelate

5%

N

Total Nitrogen

10%

SO₃

Sulfur trioxide

2,5%

Amino acids

Vegetable origin

8%

Organic acids

3,9

pH

1,33

Density

(kg/l)

Your future harvest in this package!

Wonder Leaf Mono Mn 11
  • Form: Liquid
  • Packaging: 1l, 5 l, 20 l, 1000 l
11%

Mn

Manganese chelate

2%

N

Total Nitrogen

10%

SO₃

Sulfur trioxide

1,4%

Amino acids

Vegetable origin

3,5

pH

1,41

Density

(kg/l)

Your future harvest in this package!

BBCH 51-59
Budding

BBCH 51-59
Budding

In this macro stage, the processes of formation of all organs of the flower inflorescence are completed, the development of flowers from the rudiments up to their opening. The largest upper internode continues to grow. Compound fertilizers are applied with an emphasis on nitrogen and trace elements such as zinc.

In terms of development, a flower can be viewed as a determinate growth axis of a shoot, with lateral members occupying areas of the leaves that differentiate as floral organs – sepals, petals, stamens, and pistils. In the transition to flowering, the apex of the stem undergoes characteristic changes, the most noticeable of which is the shape of the apex area, which is related to the type of structure to be formed, whether a single flower, as in the tulip, or a bunch of flowers (inflorescences), as in the lilac.

The area of cell division extends to the entire apex, and the end-cell RNA content increases. When a single flower emerges, lateral buds appear higher and higher on the sides of the apical dome, and the entire apex is absorbed in the process, after which apical growth ceases.

Wonder Leaf Wonder Macro
  • Form: Liquid
  • Packaging: 1l, 5 l, 20 l, 1000 l
10%

N

Total Nitrogen

10%

P₂O₅

Phosphorus pentoxide water soluble

10%

K₂O

Potassium oxide

1%

Organic acids

0,5%

MgO

Magnesium oxide

3%

Amino acids

Vegetable origin

4,3

pH

1,25

Density

(kg/l)

Your future harvest in this package!

Wonder Leaf Wonder Micro
  • Form: Liquid
  • Packaging: 1l, 5 l, 20 l, 1000 l
4%

N

Total Nitrogen

4%

MgO

Magnesium oxide

10%

SO₃

Sulfur trioxide

0,5%

B

Boron

0,5%

Cu

Copper сhelate

0,5%

Zn

Zink chelate

0,6%

Fe

Iron chelat

0,9%

Mn

Manganese chelate

5,2%

Amino acids

Vegetable origin

5%

Organic acids

3,6

pH

1,28

Density

(kg/l)

Your future harvest in this package!

Wonder Leaf Mono B 11
  • Form: Liquid
  • Packaging: 1l, 5 l, 20 l, 1000 l
11%

B

Boron

5%

N

Total Nitrogen

1%

Aminoacids

Vegetable origin

7,9

pH

1,37

Density

(kg/l)

Your future harvest in this package!

Wonder Leaf Pink
  • Form: Crystalline
  • Packaging: 20 kg
20%

B

Boron water soluble

Your future harvest in this package!

Wonder Leaf Red
  • Form: Crystalline
  • Packaging: 25 kg
10%

N

Total Nitrogen

20%

P₂O₅

Phosphorus pentoxide water soluble

30%

K₂O

Potassium oxide water soluble

15%

SO₃

Sulfur trioxide water soluble

2%

B₂O₃

Total Boron trioxide

Your future harvest in this package!

BBCH 71-79
Fruit and seeds formation

BBCH 71-79
Fruit and seeds formation

In this macro stage, the growth and formation of the fruit and seeds occurs. It should be noted that the embryo and endosperm increase in size.

The size of the fruit and seeds and their length are typical of the variety and hybrid. It should be noted that it is possible to influence the mass and quality of the fruit and seeds by complex fertilizers, calcium and trace elements. The fruit is formed from the ovary of the pistil after fertilization and is a characteristic feature of a flowering plant. A sharp increase in ovary cell division is observed immediately after the pollination process. Then comes a phase such as cell stretching. The nature of growth is closely related to the type of fetus.

After pollination, cell division continues for some time. After pollination, cell division continues for some time. The fertilized egg, the endosperm and the developing seeds have a strong controlling influence on fruit growth. For example, underdeveloped seeds, for certain specific reasons, are a factor in premature fruit drop. If the seed development is not uniform, the consequence can be a deformed fruit.

Foliar fertilizing of potatoes done in time, makes it possible to supply elements necessary for plants in the most critical phases of crop development. Potatoes develop better when nutrients enter the tubers in small portions, but constantly. The fact is that 30-40% of mineral nutrition is obtained from the vegetative mass, which accumulates nitrogen and sulfur from the atmosphere. Thanks to foliar feeding, we can diversify and enrich this process. At the same time, the intensity of nutrients assimilation by the potato root system largely depends on weather conditions and the chemical composition of the soil. Therefore, even on well-fertilized soils, plants may lack some element.

Well-structured, well-drained sandy and medium loamy soils with pH of 5.5 to 7.0 are considered to be the best soils for growing potatoes. However, in practice, potatoes are also grown in soils with a pH of 4.5 to 8.5, but under such conditions, the availability of certain nutrients is sharply reduced or blocked by the soil environment. At a lower pH level, the assimilation of calcium, magnesium and phosphorus deteriorates. As the soil solution reacts with a pH above 7.5, the availability of nutrients, particularly phosphorus, boron, manganese, and zinc, decreases, although high total amounts of these elements may be present in the soil.

The potato vegetation is divided into separate growth phases, and each phase must be taken into account in crop management, because nutrients should be supplied precisely at the moment of their greatest absorption by the plant. For example, the flowering of plants coincides with the stage of the tuber growth, when potassium is very important for the plant.

An optimal fertilization system should provide the plant with nutrients in an accessible form, in the right phase of development, in the right way and in the necessary rates.

Among the macronutrients, potassium and nitrogen are the elements that are used in the largest quantities for the formation of the potato crop, as they are necessary throughout the entire growing season. The need for phosphorus, calcium and magnesium is a bit lower.

Nitrogen is also equally important for the growth of above-ground mass and potato tubers. About 60% of nitrogen is absorbed within 75 days after planting. Therefore, it is especially important to provide the plants with the required level of nitrogen before closing the plants in the row (BBCH 31-39). In order to avoid nitrogen deficiency during cultivation, we recommend using Wonder Leaf Violet fertilizer (N:P:K-30:10:10 + SO3-15, Mo-0.5, w/w %). However, an excessive amount of nitrogen at the beginning of tuber formation can disrupt the flow of nutrients to the tubers and reduce their yield. An excess of nitrogen at the end of the growing season usually reduces the quality of the tubers skin and worsens the potatoes shelf life.

Potassium in the fertilizer Wonder Leaf Red (N:P:K-10:20:30 + B-2, w/w %) plays an important role in the water balance control, stomatal functioning and ion concentration of plant tissues. Potatoes require a large amount of potassium, because its main function is to participate in the sugars transferring from the leaves to the tubers and their transformation into potato starch.

Application of fertilizers: Wonder Leaf Blue (N:P:K-10:53:10 + Zn-2 chelate, w/w %), or Wonder Leaf Mono P 30 (N:P-4:30 + B-0.5, Zn chelate-0.5, amino acids-1, organic acids-4, w/w %) provides phosphorus at the initial stages, namely 4 or more leaves (BBCH 14-19) of plant growth and development. It is important for stimulating the root system, tuber formation, and in the phase of fruit and seed formation to activate the synthesis, transportation and starch accumulation.

Calcium in Wonder Leaf Mono Ca 14 (CaO-14%) fertilizer (a key component of the cell wall) ensures the strength and stability of potato tissue cells. At an optimal level of calcium, tubers are more resistant to bacterial or fungal infections and have better shelf life during storage. Calcium also helps the plant adapt to stress by stimulating signaling reactions in response to adverse factors. It also plays a key role in regulating active potassium transportation for normal stomatal function.

Magnesium plays a main role in photosynthesis. This element is involved in various key stages of sugar and protein production, as well as in the sugars transporting from leaves to tubers in the form of sucrose. Periodic fertilizing of potatoes with magnesium is recommended.

Sulfur is necessary for effective nitrogen assimilationn by plants, which, accordingly, optimizes the entire food chain. At the same time, foliar application of this element on potatoes allows controlling the spread of some diseases in this crop, thus influencing the future yield.

To supply potatoes with magnesium and sulfur, use Wonder Leaf MgS 16-32 (MgO-16, SO3- 32, Mn-0.007 w/w %).

A balanced nutrition strategy must include microelements. The most important microelements for potatoes are boron, copper, manganese and zinc.

Zinc in Wonder Leaf Mono Zn 8 (chelate Zn-8%) as part of enzymes participates in the metabolism of starch and nitrogen, and it is especially important for the synthesis of auxin – the main hormone, controlling the cells and roots growth.

Boron also affects the roots and shoots growth, stimulates pollination, ensures calcium translocation from roots to tubers. Along with potassium and calcium, boron is an important element that ensures the strength of cell walls, significantly affects the quality of tubers and their storage period.

Manganese Wonder Leaf Mono Mn 11 (Mn-11% chelate) affects the content of enzymes activating nitrogen metabolism, energy transportation and fatty acid synthesis. Copper in is a part of enzymes activating carbohydrate and protein metabolism, affecting photosynthesis and protein synthesis.

Treatment of plants with zinc, manganese and copper increases plants resistance to scab, drought and heat.

The system of feeding potatoes with Wonder fertilizers is based on providing the crop with an optimal ratio of macro- and microelements in the most sensitive periods of its development. In potatoes, the phases of germination, row closing, budding and fruit formation are critical in terms of nutrient requirements.

Before planting potatoes, it is recommended to treat seeds with Wonder Leaf Wonder Micro1.5-2 l/t of planting material to increase the energy of germination and the appearance of favorable seedlings.

Organic and mineral fertilizers

Since the production and application of organic fertilizers has  almost stopped, the soil was depleted of nutrients and microelements — vitamins, necessary for the growth and development of potatoes. Because of this, potato growers increasingly use complex water-soluble fertilizers.

The most effective way of using mineral fertilizers for potatoes is their combined application, which increases the yield, starch content and improves the taste of the tubers.

In order to obtain the maximum efficiency from fertilizers, it is necessary to correctly establish the norms, terms and methods of their application. At the same time, it is necessary to take into account soil and climatic conditions and the level of soil fertility based on agrochemical analysis.

Shortage and excess

Each element of mineral nutrition performs a certain physiological function, so the lack or excess of even one of them affects the plants biochemical composition and appearance. With a sharp violation of mineral nutrition, changes in the structure of individual organs are observed, in particular, in the height of plants, in the color of leaves, the condition of tissues, etc. This is especially important when growing seed potatoes.

Viral and fungal diseases, frost, drought, excessive soil moisture, mechanical damage, etc can cause changes in the external structure of individual organs. Therefore, to determine the causes of non-standard plants growth and development, the possibility of a negative effect of a lack of certain elements of mineral nutrition should be taken into account. Usually, signs of nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium and magnesium deficiency are visible first of all on the lower leaves; calcium, iron, boron, copper — on the top ones.

In field conditions, the nitrogen and potassium deficiency is detected most often on poorly cultivated sod-podzolic soils; phosphorus – on poorly cultivated and acidic; magnesium, iron, zinc, boron – on limed or rich in lime; calcium and molybdenum – on acidic soils.

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