Vegetable crops - WONDER

Recommendations and rates of fertilizer application for vegetable crops

  • To exact determination and calculation the required amount of fertilizer application, it is recommended to conduct soil agrochemical analysis, taking into account the planned yield indicators
  • We recommend to discuss nutritional special aspects with your regional manager

BBCH 00
Seed treatment

BBCH 13-19
Leaves development

BBCH 31-39
Stem elongation

BBCH 51-59
Budding

BBCH 71-79
Fruit and seeds formation

BBCH 00
Seed treatment

BBCH 00
Seed treatment

In this macro stage, it is necessary to pay attention to the fact that the seeds are similar. Similarity at the varietal level – 60-80%, similarity at the hybrid level – 92-98%. Field similarity is influenced by factors such as the selection of high-quality seed material, a qualitatively prepared seed bed, seeding technique, treatment of seeds with trace elements and favorable weather conditions.

Germination is the beginning of plant development. It is very important that its duration begins with a state of rest before the appearance of seedlings, in fact, until the shell of the first leaf with the shoot appears on the soil surface. In the process of germination of seeds, water is absorbed by the embryo, which leads to rehydration and to the expansion of cells. Soon after the start of water absorption or absorption, the respiratory rate increases, and various metabolic processes are restored, suspended or significantly reduced during the rest period.

All these events are associated with structural changes in organelles (membrane bodies responsible for metabolism) and in the cells of the embryo. Since spare materials are partially in undissolved form, namely in the form of starch grains, protein granules, lipid droplets and other substances, most of the early metabolism of sprouts is associated with the mobilization of these materials and the delivery or movement of products to active sites.

Reserves outside the embryo are digested by enzymes. The active growth of the embryo, with the exception of edema resulting from edema, usually begins with the appearance of the primary root, known as the root from the seeds, although in some species (for example, coconut) the shoot or feather appears first.

The early growth of the embryo depends mainly on the expansion of the cell, but within a short time, cell division begins at the root and young shoot, and then growth and further formation of organs (organogenesis) are based on the usual combination, increase in the number of cells and increase in the number of individual cells, by the embryo, and in some cases also by special endosperm cells.

Wonder Leaf Wonder Micro
  • Form: Liquid
  • Packaging: 1l, 5 l, 20 l, 1000 l
4%

N

Total Nitrogen

4%

MgO

Magnesium oxide water soluble

10%

SO₃

Sulfur trioxide water soluble

0,5%

B

Boron water soluble

0,5%

Cu

Copper сhelate

0,5%

Zn

Zink chelate

0,6%

Fe

Iron chelat

0,9%

Mn

Manganese chelate

5,2%

Amino acids

Vegetable origin

5%

Organic acids

3,6

pH

1,28

Density

(kg/l)

Your future harvest in this package!

BBCH 13-19
Leaves development

BBCH 13-19
Leaves development

This macro stage develops from the first true leaf and continues up to nine or more true leaves. First, the rudimentary stem nodes and internodes are established. The plant needs sufficient supplies of macronutrients such as phosphorus and potassium. When exposed to environmental and anthropogenic influences, amino acids are needed to eliminate them. Leaves originate on the sides of the shoot tip.

A local concentration of cell divisions marks the very beginning of the leaf; these cells then enlarge to form a nipple-shaped structure called a leaf support. The cells of the leaf support can be derived from the sheath or from the sheath and the hull. The support then becomes more and more flattened in the transverse plane due to laterally oriented cell divisions and subsequent expansion on both sides. After that, the prop becomes more and more flattened in the transverse plane due to laterally oriented cell divisions and subsequent expansion on both sides.

The dividing zones are the marginal meristems, through the activity of which the leaf acquires its lamellar shape. In each meristem, the outer array of cells or marginal initials contribute to the epidermal layers by prolonged division. The cells below, the submarginal initials, provide the tissue of the inner part of the leaf. Usually, a certain number of cell layers are defined in the mesophyll (the parenchyma between the epidermal layers of the leaf).

Cell division is not limited to the region of the marginal meristems, but continues throughout the leaf in each of the layers, always in the same plane, until the final cell number is approached. Then the rate decreases, terminating in different layers at different times. The divisions usually end first in the epidermis, then in the lower layers of the leaf mesophyll.

Wonder Leaf Mono Mo 3
  • Form: Liquid
  • Packaging: 1l, 5 l, 20 l, 1000 l
3%

Mo

Molybdenum is soluble in water

3%

N

General nitrogen

0,5%

B

Boron water soluble

0,5%

Zn

Zink chelate

4,3%

Amino acids

Vegetable origin

15%

Organic acids

3,8

pH

1,15

Density

(kg/l)

Your future harvest in this package!

Wonder Leaf Mono Mn 11
  • Form: Liquid
  • Packaging: 1l, 5 l, 20 l, 1000 l
11%

Mn

Manganese chelate

2%

N

Total Nitrogen

10%

SO₃

Sulfur trioxide water soluble

1,4%

Amino acids

Vegetable origin

3,5

pH

1,41

Density

(kg/l)

Your future harvest in this package!

Wonder Leaf Mono P 30
  • Form: Liquid
  • Packaging: 1l, 5 l, 20 l, 1000 l
30%

P₂O₅

Phosphorus pentoxide water soluble

4%

N

Total Nitrogen

0,5%

B

Boron water soluble

0,5%

Zn

Zinc chelate

1%

Amino acids

Vegetable origin

4%

Organic acids

3,5

pH

1,37

Density

(kg/l)

Your future harvest in this package!

Wonder Leaf Green
  • Form: Crystalline
  • Packaging: 25 kg
7%

P₂O₅

Phosphorus pentoxide water soluble

5%

K₂O

Potassium oxide water soluble

16%

SO₃

Sulfur trioxide water soluble

2%

B

Boron water soluble

2%

Zn

Zinc water solubl

2%

Cu

Сopper water soluble

0,05%

Mo

Molybdenum water soluble

2%

Fe

Iron water soluble

4%

Mn

Manganese water soluble

15%

Amino acids

Vegetable origin

Your future harvest in this package!

Wonder Leaf Pink
  • Form: Crystalline
  • Packaging: 20 kg
20%

B

Boron water soluble

Your future harvest in this package!

BBCH 31-39
Stem elongation

BBCH 31-39
Stem elongation

To disclose in detail this macro stage, it is necessary to indicate that here occurs the formation of second-order growth cones, the formation of the available number of flowers in the inflorescence with the laying down of flower covering organs, the formation of anthers (microsporogenesis) and stigmas (megasporogenesis), the formation of a larger number of synchronously developed productive stems. There is intensive growth of organs in length, formation of ovules and pollen grains. Applying nitrogen and phosphorus fertilizers can increase the number of flowers in an inflorescence. Although the structural organization of the vascular plant is relatively loose, the development of different parts is well coordinated.

Control depends on the movement of chemicals, including nutrients and hormones. An example of correlation is shoot and root growth. The increase in the aerial part is accompanied by an increased need for water, minerals and mechanical support, which are satisfied by the coordinated growth of the root system. Several factors seem to be involved in control, as the shoot and the root affect each other mutually. The root depends on the shoot for organic nutrients, just as the shoot depends on the root for water and inorganic nutrients, and thus the flow of ordinary nutrients must play a role. However, more specific control can be provided by supplying the nutrients needed in very small quantities.

The root depends on the shoot for certain vitamins, and changes in supply reflecting the metabolic state of the above-ground parts can also affect root growth. In addition, hormonal factors affecting cell division pass upward from the root to the stem; although the exact role of hormones has not yet been established with certainty, they may be one of the ways in which the root system can influence the activity of the shoot apex. Secondary thickening control is another important example of growth correlation. As the size of the shoot system increases, the need for both greater mechanical support and enhanced transport of water, minerals, and elements is met by increased coverage of the stem through the activity of the vascular cambium. As a rule, the cambium of trees in temperate zones is most active in spring, when buds are budding and shoots are sprouting, creating a need for nutrients.

Cell division begins on each shoot and then spreads out from it. The terminal bud stimulates the cambium to divide rapidly through the action of two groups of plant hormones: auxins and gibberellins. Inhibition of lateral buds, another example of a correlated growth reaction, illustrates a reaction opposite to that occurring when controlling cambial activity. Lateral buds are generally depressed, as axillary shoots grow slower or do not grow at all, while the terminal bud is active. This so-called apical dominance is responsible for the characteristic unit of trunk growth observed in many conifers and herbaceous plants, such as the mallow. Weaker dominance leads to a form with multiple branching. This fact that the lateral or axillary buds become more active when the terminal bud is removed is evidence of hormonal control.

The flow of auxin from the shoot apex is partially responsible for the inhibition of axillary buds. The nutritional status of the plant also plays a role, as verticillium dominance is strong when mineral supply and light are insufficient. Since the axillary buds are released from inhibition by treatment with substances that stimulate cell division, also called cytokinins, it has been suggested that these substances are also involved in the regulation of kidney activity.

Wonder Leaf Wonder Micro
  • Form: Liquid
  • Packaging: 1l, 5 l, 20 l, 1000 l
4%

N

Total Nitrogen

4%

MgO

Magnesium oxide water soluble

10%

SO₃

Sulfur trioxide water soluble

0,5%

B

Boron water soluble

0,5%

Cu

Copper сhelate

0,5%

Zn

Zink chelate

0,6%

Fe

Iron chelat

0,9%

Mn

Manganese chelate

5,2%

Amino acids

Vegetable origin

5%

Organic acids

3,6

pH

1,28

Density

(kg/l)

Your future harvest in this package!

Wonder Leaf Mono Zn 8
  • Form: Liquid
  • Packaging: 1l, 5 l, 20 l, 1000 l
8%

Zn

Zinc chelate

5%

N

Total Nitrogen

10%

SO₃

Sulfur trioxide water soluble

2,5%

Amino acids

Vegetable origin

8%

Organic acids

3,9

pH

1,33

Density

(kg/l)

Your future harvest in this package!

Wonder Leaf Violet
  • Form: Crystalline
  • Packaging: 25 kg
30%

N

Total Nitrogen

10%

P₂O₅

Phosphorus pentoxide water soluble

10%

K₂O

Potassium oxide water soluble

15%

SO₃

Sulfur trioxide water soluble

0,5%

Mo

Molybdenum is soluble in water

Your future harvest in this package!

BBCH 51-59
Budding

BBCH 51-59
Budding

In this macro stage, the processes of formation of all organs of the flower inflorescence are completed, the development of flowers from the rudiments up to their opening. The largest upper internode continues to grow. Compound fertilizers are applied with an emphasis on nitrogen and trace elements such as zinc.

In terms of development, a flower can be viewed as a determinate growth axis of a shoot, with lateral members occupying areas of the leaves that differentiate as floral organs – sepals, petals, stamens, and pistils. In the transition to flowering, the apex of the stem undergoes characteristic changes, the most noticeable of which is the shape of the apex area, which is related to the type of structure to be formed, whether a single flower, as in the tulip, or a bunch of flowers (inflorescences), as in the lilac.

The area of cell division extends to the entire apex, and the end-cell RNA content increases. When a single flower emerges, lateral buds appear higher and higher on the sides of the apical dome, and the entire apex is absorbed in the process, after which apical growth ceases.

Wonder Leaf Blossom
  • Form: Liquid
  • Packaging: 20 l
2%

N

Total Nitrogen

2%

P₂O₅

Phosphorus pentoxide

7%

K₂O

Potassium oxide

1%

MgO

Magnesium oxide

3%

SO₃

Sulfur trioxide

0,7%

B

Boron

0,3%

Zn

Zinc chelate

0,1%

Fe

Iron chelate

0,05%

Cu

Copper chelate

0,05%

Mn

Manganese chelate

0,05%

Mo

Molybdenum

4%

Amino acids

Vegetable origin

6

pH

1,2

Density

(kg/l)

Your future harvest in this package!

Wonder Leaf Mono Mn 11
  • Form: Liquid
  • Packaging: 1l, 5 l, 20 l, 1000 l
11%

Mn

Manganese chelate

2%

N

Total Nitrogen

10%

SO₃

Sulfur trioxide water soluble

1,4%

Amino acids

Vegetable origin

3,5

pH

1,41

Density

(kg/l)

Your future harvest in this package!

Wonder Leaf Mono B 11
  • Form: Liquid
  • Packaging: 1l, 5 l, 20 l, 1000 l
11%

B

Boron water soluble

5%

N

Total Nitrogen

1%

Aminoacids

Vegetable origin

7,9

pH

1,37

Density

(kg/l)

Your future harvest in this package!

Wonder Leaf Yellow
  • Form: Crystalline
  • Packaging: 25 kg
21%

N

Total Nitrogen

21%

P₂O₅

Phosphorus pentoxide water soluble

21%

K₂O

Potassium oxide water soluble

0,5%

Cu

Сopper chelate

0,5%

Mn

Manganese chelate

0,5%

Zn

Zinc chelate

Your future harvest in this package!

BBCH 71-79
Fruit and seeds formation

BBCH 71-79
Fruit and seeds formation

In this macro stage, the growth and formation of the fruit and seeds occurs. It should be noted that the embryo and endosperm increase in size.

The size of the fruit and seeds and their length are typical of the variety and hybrid. It should be noted that it is possible to influence the mass and quality of the fruit and seeds by complex fertilizers, calcium and trace elements.

The fruit is formed from the ovary of the pistil after fertilization and is a characteristic feature of a flowering plant. A sharp increase in ovary cell division is observed immediately after the pollination process. Then comes a phase such as cell stretching. The nature of growth is closely related to the type of fetus. After pollination, cell division continues for some time. After pollination, cell division continues for some time.

The fertilized egg, the endosperm and the developing seeds have a strong controlling influence on fruit growth. For example, underdeveloped seeds, for certain specific reasons, are a factor in premature fruit drop. If the seed development is not uniform, the consequence can be a deformed fruit.

Wonder Leaf Mono Ca 14
  • Form: Liquid
  • Packaging: 1l, 5 l, 20 l, 1000 l
14%

CaO

Calcium oxide water soluble

8%

N

Total Nitrogen

2%

MgO

Magnesium oxide water soluble

3

pH

1,43

Density

(kg/l)

Your future harvest in this package!

Wonder Leaf Mono P 30
  • Form: Liquid
  • Packaging: 1l, 5 l, 20 l, 1000 l
30%

P₂O₅

Phosphorus pentoxide water soluble

4%

N

Total Nitrogen

0,5%

B

Boron water soluble

0,5%

Zn

Zinc chelate

1%

Amino acids

Vegetable origin

4%

Organic acids

3,5

pH

1,37

Density

(kg/l)

Your future harvest in this package!

Wonder Leaf Mono B 11
  • Form: Liquid
  • Packaging: 1l, 5 l, 20 l, 1000 l
11%

B

Boron water soluble

5%

N

Total Nitrogen

1%

Aminoacids

Vegetable origin

7,9

pH

1,37

Density

(kg/l)

Your future harvest in this package!

Vegetable cultivation is a type of plant cultivation intended primarily for human consumption of the edible parts of the crop, such as shoots, leaves, fruits and roots. According to the harvest’s consumption, vegetables are divided into the following groups:

  • Leafy vegetables (lettuce, cabbage, spinach)
  • Fruit ones (pepper, cucumber, tomato)
  • Root vegetables (carrot, radish, sweet potato)
  • Bulbs (garlic, onion, fennel)
  • Flower (artichoke, cauliflower, broccoli)

The world production of vegetable crops has been growing steadily in recent years.

Despite the fact that vegetable growing is a labor-intensive activity, it is very popular among farmers as a highly profitable branch of the economy. The secret of the vegetable growing profitability lies in the high market price of the crop, as well as in the high demand for vegetables during the whole year.

In addition, vegetables cultivation is the predominant agricultural practice in developing and food-insecure countries. Because of the fact that vegetables are rich in vitamins, minerals, and fiber, they play an important role in human and animal nutrition.

In fact, being ignorant about vegetable cultivation makes it difficult to achieve success. Of course, the first and most important thing is to know what the soil or the plant itself needs, and only then start choosing fertilizer. Considering the wide variety of fertilizers on the market, this is quite a difficult task. So let’s try to talk in an understandable for all form about the basics of the correct use of the spectrum of substances for plant nutrition together with Wonder.

Macronutrients are chemical elements that the plant assimilates from various sources to build crop mass in quantities measured in tens and hundreds of kilograms. These include: carbon, hydrogen, oxygen. With the help of a system of macroelements of the first order feeding – nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium – it is possible to provide comfortable conditions for the plants nutrition. We recommend using the following fertilizers:

Wonder Leaf Blue (N:10, P:53, K:10, Zn:2);

Wonder Leaf Violet (N:30, P:10, K:10, SO3:15, Mo:15);

Wonder Leaf Yellow (N:21, P:21, K:21, Zn, Cu, Mn:0,5);

Wonder Leaf Red (N:10, P:20, K:30, SO3:15, B2O3:2);

Wonder Leaf Mono P 30 (P:30, N:4, B:0,5, Zn:0,5, Аa:1);

Wonder Leaf Wonder Macro (N:10, P:10, K:10, MgO:0,5, Аa: 3).

The level of macroelements provision of a different order, or mesoelements – calcium, magnesium, sulfur – can also be adjusted with the help of fertilizer.

Wonder Leaf Mg 16-32 (MgO:16, SO3:32, Mn:0,007);

Wonder Leaf Mono Ca 14 (CaO:14, N:8, MgO:2, w/w%).

Microelements are chemical elements, the amount of which is assimilated by the crop ranges from several kilograms to several tens of grams. These include: boron, iron, manganese, copper, molybdenum, zinc. This group also includes silicon, cobalt, and selenium. Their effectiveness as of the nutrients and of ones, obtaining chemically “healthy” foods and animal feed can be found in areas where their content in the soil is insufficient.

Wonder Leaf Mono B 11 (B:11, N:5, Аa:1, w/w%);

Wonder Leaf Mono B 120 (B:9, w/w%);

Wonder Leaf Mono Cu 6 (Cu:6, N:5, SO3:7, Аa:2,5, w/w%);

Wonder Leaf Mn 11 (Mn:11, N:2, SO3:10, Аa:1,4%);

Wonder Leaf Mono Zn 8 (Zn:8, N:5, SO3:10, Аa:2,5%);

Wonder Leaf Mono Fe 10 (Fe:8,8; N:4,4; SO3:12; w/w%);

Wonder Leaf Mono Mo 3 (Mo:3; N:3; B:0,5; Zn:0,5; Аa:4,3%);

Wonder Leaf Wonder Micro (N:4; MgO:4; SO3:10; B,Cu,Zn:0,5; Fe:0,6; Mn:0,9; Аa:5,2, w/w%).

As the vegetable cultivation industry intensifies in connection with the increase in the yield level due to the development of new high-yielding varieties and hybrids, the plants need for them increases. Sources of their appearence in the soil are: organic and mineral fertilizers.

Recently, the problem of providing plants with the necessary microelements has been successfully solved with the help of foliar fertilizing. There is a large number of such fertilizers on the market, and it is sometimes difficult, even for a professional, to make a choice without a detailed study. If you have questions about plant nutrition, Wonder provides the following free service, namely an agronomist 24/7 or write a letter to info@wonder-corporation.com. Let’s try to build certain evaluation parameters, according to which you can make a choice.

According to their state, fertilizers can be in the form of liquids, crystals, granules, as well as microgranules for sowing or planting plants. It will be more important to know the form of compounds in which nutrients are found.

If these are salts dissolved in water, the level of assimilation is low, interaction is possible even with the water that is poured into the sprayer, not to mention other components, for example, fungicides or insecticides. Possible negative consequences: a decrease in the effectiveness of the accompanying substances present in the tank mixture of the sprayer, as well as plant burns.

Organo-mineral compounds are marked by the highest level of availability, but the disadvantages are the same as for the previous group.

Chelates, in contrast to salts solutions and organo-mineral compounds, have the highest indicators of stability and level of nutrients assimilation. For this class of compounds, it is important to know the completeness of chelation or the presence of other classes of compounds, as this depends on their effectiveness in use.

Wonder Leaf Mono Zn 8 (Zn:8, N:5, SO3:10, Аa:2,5%);

Wonder Leaf Mono Cu 6 (Cu:6, N:5, SO3:7, Аa:2,5, Оa:2);

Wonder Leaf Mono Mn 11 (Mn:11, N:2, SO3:10, Ак:1,4%);

Wonder Leaf Mono Fe 10 (Fe:8,8; N:4,4; SO3:12; w/w%).

An important indicator of quality is the content of nutrients in g/l.

In addition, it is important to know in what form the compounds are in the fertilizer. This depends on the speed and amount of assimilation, and, accordingly, the effect.

A group of compositions containing biologically active substances of various nature should be singled out separately.

Compositions containing amino acids. It has been scientifically proven that amino acids, like solutions containing nutrients, can penetrate through the leaves and be absorbed. Amino acids are derivatives of carboxylic acids, in the hydrocarbon radical of which one or more hydrogen atoms are replaced by an amino group. Depending on the nature of the hydrocarbon radical, aliphatic and aromatic amino acids are distinguished. The most important are amino acids of the aliphatic series, which, in particular, are part of proteins. The role of amino acids in plant nutrition is multifaceted. They, in particular, allow plants to quickly overcome stress, contribute to a better flow of the flowering and pollination process. The phenomenon of optical isomerism is characteristic of amino acids. Plant absorption depends on whether it is the L- or D-isomer. L-isomers are easily and quickly absorbed by the plant and thus show an anti-stress effect.

Wonder Leaf Amino 43 (Аa – 43%, w/w%);

Wonder Leaf Orange (Аa – 18% + МЕ);

Wonder Leaf Green (Аa – 15% + МЕ).

Polysaccharides are a source of readily available energy and a component for the synthesis of other compounds.

Phytohormones are chemicals produced in plants that regulate their growth and development. They are formed mainly in actively growing tissues, at the tops of roots and stems. Agronomically important groups of phytohormones include auxins, gibberellins and cytokinins. Widely used in compositions for treating seeds before sowing, root system – before planting, for feeding plants.

As for the nutrition of leading vegetable crops, let it be cucumber, it grows better on soils of light and medium granulometric composition, where the balance of the water-air regime is optimal. The optimal level of soil acidity when growing cucumbers is from slightly acidic to neutral. With the cucumbers harvest, a relatively small amount of mineral nutrition elements is “taken out” from the soil, but, taking into account the relatively short cultivation season of the crop, it should be considered demanding of soil fertility. In the system of cucumbers fertilization, an extraordinary place belongs to the main fertilizing.

Cucumbers respond positively to the application of fresh manure at the rate of 40-60 t/ha. The crop responds better to fresh manure, which serves as a source of CO2 and thus contributes to increasing the productivity of the culture. The rate of mineral fertilizers depends on the type of soil, the presence of nutrients in it, the rate of manure and the planned yield. Higher rates of nitrogen fertilizers lead to the accumulation of nitrates in cucumbers. Foliar fertilization is effective in cucumber crops. Fertilization is carried out several times per season, starting from the phase of four true leaves (BBCH 14). Before the onset of mass fruiting and the most intensive growth of the crop, the accumulation of a sufficient amount of mineral substances necessary for the formation of a high crop should be completed by the plants.

Therefore, the lack of nutrients in the initial period has a particularly negative effect on plant productivity. Supplying cucumbers with nutrients should be sufficient from the early stages of vegetation and throughout the cultivation season. Nutrients that accumulate in the vegetative organs are then directed to the formation of fruits. Cucumbers are most sensitive to a lack of potassium, as well as manganese and molybdenum. Foliar feeding of cucumbers in combination with irrigation is more effective.

Optimum mineral nutrition of plants is of great importance for normal growth, development and maximum yield of tomato fruits. At the same time, tomato plants react to soil nutrition conditions during the cultivatiom season in different ways. Thus, young plants need 3-5 times more minerals than adult ones to form a unit of dry matter. Therefore, an enriched nutrient mixture is prepared for growing seedlings.

Along with the complete supply of nutrients to plants, due attention should also be paid to their ratio. After all, during the seedling period, tomato plants intensively consume phosphorus and potassium, and after planting in a permanent place of cultivation – nitrogen. Therefore, in order to obtain high-quality seedlings, plants are intensively fed with phosphorus-potassium fertilizers against the background of moderate nitrogen doses.

After planting the seedlings in the open ground, the nitrogen dose is increased to the level of phosphorus-potassium nutrition. In the future (before the formation of fruits on the first tassel), tomato plants need moderate nitrogen nutrition and increased phosphorus. In the period of fruit formation (BBCH 71-79) on the first three tassels, the tomato needs enhanced nitrogen nutrition with Wonder Leaf Violet (N:30, P:10, K:10, SO3:15, Mo:15). And while ripening – Wonder Leaf Red (N:10, P:20, K:30, SO3:15, B2O3:2).

The average yield with a harvest of 10 tons of products is: nitrogen – 33 kg, phosphorus – 13.0, potassium – 45.3, calcium – 44, magnesium – 8 kg. Despite the fact that the tomato takes 2.9 times less phosphorus than nitrogen and 4 times less than potassium from the soil, it quickly reacts to its lack, especially during the seedling period and during the formation of reproductive organs. With a lack of phosphorus, plant growth slows down and even stops, the leaves become narrow, grayish in color, and the stem and petioles acquire an anthocyanin color. At the same time, the ovary formation and fruits ripening is delayed. Lack of potassium in the soil causes stem growth to stop, plants dry up, yellow-brown spots appear on the edges of the leaves, after which they curl inward and dry.

The yield of tomato plants is negatively affected by both a lack and an excess of nitrogen. When it is deficient, the growth of stems and leaves stops, the plants acquire a light green color, the leaves turn yellow and fall prematurely. This delays the plants development, reduces the yield and worsens its quality. An excess of nitrogen in the soil delays the fruits ripening, reduces the resistance of tomato plants to diseases.

Compared to other vegetable crops, cabbage needs the largest amount of nutrients, so it is picky about soil fertility and responds well to fertilizers. At the beginning of growth, plants consume more nitrogen, and during the head formation – potassium and phosphorus. An excess of nitrogen with an insufficient amount of phosphorus and potassium in the soil leads to the formation of loose heads of low quality. Manure is applied at the rate of 20-30 t/ha on fertile chernozems, and 30-40 t/ha on other, less fertile types. The rate of compost is 40-50 t/ha. Norms of mineral fertilizers are determined taking into account the availability of soil nutrients, the rate of their use and the planned harvest.

Depending on the ripeness group of the cultivated varieties and the content of nutrients in the soil, the following rates of fertilizers are recommended for cabbage: for early one – N 90-140; P90; K60; for medium – N 100; R 90; K100 and late one – N120-160; P150; K160.

White cabbage is characterized by critical and periods of maximum absorption of nutrients. In the first phases of growth and development, cabbage assimilates about 10% of nitrogen, 7% of phosphorus and 7.5% of potassium. The main amount of nutrients plants absorb from the soil during the phase of formation of the head, which lasts 40-50 days, during this time the culture uses 80% of nitrogen, 86% of phosphorus and 84% of potassium from the total removal.

Cabbage is quite sensitive to the lack of mesoelements – sulfur, magnesium and calcium. It is also important to provide cabbage plants with key microelements – molybdenum, boron and iron.

Thus, in order to make the right choice and get the expected result, it is necessary to calculate the effects of certain compounds.

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