Grain crops - WONDER

Fertilizer application rates and recommendation for grain crops

  • To exact determination and calculation the required amount of fertilizer application, it is recommended to conduct soil agrochemical analysis, taking into account the planned yield indicators
  • We recommend to discuss nutritional special aspects with your regional manager

BBCH 00
Seed processing

BBCH 14-19
Leaves development

Winter anabiosis period

BBCH 21-29
Tillering

BBCH 31-39
Stem elongation

BBCH 51-59
Earing

BBCH 00
Seed processing

BBCH 00
Seed processing

In this macro stage it is necessary to pay attention to the fact that the seeds are similar. Similarity at varietal level is 60-80%, similarity at hybrid level is 92-98%. Field similarity is influenced by such factors as selection of high-quality seeds, qualitatively prepared seed bed, seeding technique, treatment of seeds with microelements and favorable weather conditions.

That is the stage of germination – the beginning of plant development. Duration of this stage begins from dormancy to appearance of sprouts, i.e. to appearance of the first leaf sheath with a shoot on the soil surface. During seed germination, water is absorbed by the embryo, leading to rehydration and cell expansion. Soon after water uptake or absorption begins, the respiration rate increases, and various types of metabolic processes, suspended or significantly reduced during dormancy, are restored. These events are associated with structural changes in organelles (membrane bodies responsible for metabolism), in embryonic cells. Since the stored materials are partly in an insoluble form – in the form of starch grains, protein granules, lipid droplets, etc. – most of the early metabolism of seedlings involves mobilization of these materials and delivery or transfer of products to the active sites.

In fact, the stocks outside the embryo are digested by enzymes secreted by the embryo and, in some cases, also by special endosperm cells. Active embryo growth, except for that resulting from swelling, usually begins with the emergence of the primary root, known as the seed root, although in some species (e.g., coconut) the shoot or peruncle emerges first.

Early growth depends mainly on cell expansion, but within a short time cell division begins in the root and young shoot, followed by growth and subsequent organ formation (organogenesis), which is based on the usual combination of increased cell number and increased individual cells.

Wonder Leaf Wonder Micro
  • Form: Liquid
  • Packaging: 1l, 5 l, 20 l, 1000 l
4%

N

Total Nitrogen

4%

MgO

Magnesium oxide

10%

SO₃

Sulfur trioxide

0,5%

B

Boron

0,5%

Cu

Copper сhelate

0,5%

Zn

Zink chelate

0,6%

Fe

Iron chelat

0,9%

Mn

Manganese chelate

5,2%

Amino acids

Vegetable origin

5%

Organic acids

3,6

pH

1,28

Density

(kg/l)

Your future harvest in this package!

BBCH 14-19
Leaves development

BBCH 14-19
Leaves development

In the mentioned macro stage, the development starts from the first true leaf and continues up to nine or more true leaves. That is, rudimentary stem nodes and internodes are initiated. According to studies, every plant needs sufficient reserves of macronutrients such as phosphorus and potassium. When exposed to environmental and anthropogenic influences, amino acids are needed to eliminate them.

Leaves originate on the sides of the shoot tip. A local concentration of cell divisions marks the very beginning of the leaf; these cells then enlarge to form a nipple-shaped structure, also called a leaf support. The cells of the leaf support can be derived from the sheath or from the sheath and its hull.

After that, the support becomes more and more flattened in the transverse plane due to laterally oriented cell divisions and subsequent expansion on both sides. We would like to point out that the dividing zones are marginal meristems, due to the activity of which the leaf acquires its lamellar shape.

In each meristem, the outer array of cells or marginal initials contributes to the epidermal layers by prolonged separation. The cells below are the submarginal initials, which provide the tissue of the inner part of the leaf. Usually, a certain number of cell layers are defined in the layer, which is called the mesophyll (the parenchyma between the epidermal layers of the leaf).

Cell division is not limited to the region of the marginal meristems, but continues throughout the leaf in each of the layers, always in the same plane, until the final cell number is approached. Then the rate decreases, terminating in different layers at different times. The divisions usually end first in the epidermis, then in the lower layers of the leaf mesophyll.

Wonder Leaf Wonder Macro
  • Form: Liquid
  • Packaging: 1l, 5 l, 20 l, 1000 l
10%

N

Total Nitrogen

10%

P₂O₅

Phosphorus pentoxide water soluble

10%

K₂O

Potassium oxide

1%

Organic acids

0,5%

MgO

Magnesium oxide

3%

Amino acids

Vegetable origin

4,3

pH

1,25

Density

(kg/l)

Your future harvest in this package!

Wonder Leaf Wonder Micro
  • Form: Liquid
  • Packaging: 1l, 5 l, 20 l, 1000 l
4%

N

Total Nitrogen

4%

MgO

Magnesium oxide

10%

SO₃

Sulfur trioxide

0,5%

B

Boron

0,5%

Cu

Copper сhelate

0,5%

Zn

Zink chelate

0,6%

Fe

Iron chelat

0,9%

Mn

Manganese chelate

5,2%

Amino acids

Vegetable origin

5%

Organic acids

3,6

pH

1,28

Density

(kg/l)

Your future harvest in this package!

Wonder Leaf Mono P 30
  • Form: Liquid
  • Packaging: 1l, 5 l, 20 l, 1000 l
30%

P₂O₅

Phosphorus pentoxide

4%

N

Total Nitrogen

0,5%

B

Boron

0,5%

Zn

Zinc chelate

1%

Amino acids

Vegetable origin

4%

Organic acids

3,5

pH

1,37

Density

(kg/l)

Your future harvest in this package!

Wonder Leaf Pink
  • Form: Crystalline
  • Packaging: 20 kg
20%

B

Boron water soluble

Your future harvest in this package!

Wonder Leaf Red
  • Form: Crystalline
  • Packaging: 25 kg
10%

N

Total Nitrogen

20%

P₂O₅

Phosphorus pentoxide water soluble

30%

K₂O

Potassium oxide water soluble

15%

SO₃

Sulfur trioxide water soluble

2%

B₂O₃

Total Boron trioxide

Your future harvest in this package!

Winter anabiosis period

Winter anabiosis period

BBCH 21-29
Tillering

BBCH 21-29
Tillering

In this macro stage, differentiation of the main axis of the embryonic inflorescence occurs. The number of flowers is determined.

During the period of intensive development, from the phase of formation of lateral shoots/budding to the flowering phase, sufficient reserves of macro-, meso- and microelements are necessary for the full development of all plant organs.

The shoots of most vascular plants branch according to a sequential plan, with each new axis arising at the angle between the leaf and the stem, that is, in the axil of the leaf. In some plants, buds can also be formed from older parts of the shoot or root, distant from the main tops; these buds, called appendages, do not correspond to the general plan.

The apex of the lateral shoot begins on the sides of the main apex, but at some distance below the point of emergence of the bud of the youngest leaf. As in leaf origin, normally the outer cell layers contribute to the surface tissues of the new tip, maintaining a consistent pattern of divisions. In some species, a sheath of more than one cell layer is formed rapidly, so that the new tip looks like a miniature version of the main one. Alternatively, differentiation may not become apparent until a new initial state of significant mass has been reached. In all cases, the new apex must reach a minimum volume before it, in turn, can begin to form its own lateral buds and organize true axillary buds. When this volume is reached, zoning appears. As in the main apex, the formation of new buds is associated with the ring zone.

From this point, lateral shoot development is the same as that of the main shoot, except that growth may not be as rapid because the main shoot, or leading bud, dominates and absorbs most of the available nutrients. The early growth of the axillary bud proceeds quite vigorously until a certain number of leaf buds are formed; then the apical activity slows down. Cell division gradually stops, and with it the synthesis associated with it; thus, there is no increase in the DNA of the meristem nuclei after the last division. The bud, in fact, goes into a state of rest, even if the external conditions for growth are favorable. This phenomenon is known as correlative bud suppression, as it is determined by the activity of the leading shoot bud. If the leading bud is removed, stunted lateral buds resume growth.

Wonder Leaf Wonder Micro
  • Form: Liquid
  • Packaging: 1l, 5 l, 20 l, 1000 l
4%

N

Total Nitrogen

4%

MgO

Magnesium oxide

10%

SO₃

Sulfur trioxide

0,5%

B

Boron

0,5%

Cu

Copper сhelate

0,5%

Zn

Zink chelate

0,6%

Fe

Iron chelat

0,9%

Mn

Manganese chelate

5,2%

Amino acids

Vegetable origin

5%

Organic acids

3,6

pH

1,28

Density

(kg/l)

Your future harvest in this package!

Wonder Leaf Mono Mn 11
  • Form: Liquid
  • Packaging: 1l, 5 l, 20 l, 1000 l
11%

Mn

Manganese chelate

2%

N

Total Nitrogen

10%

SO₃

Sulfur trioxide

1,4%

Amino acids

Vegetable origin

3,5

pH

1,41

Density

(kg/l)

Your future harvest in this package!

Wonder Leaf Mono Cu 6
  • Form: Liquid
  • Packaging: 1l, 5 l, 20 l, 1000 l
6%

Cu

Сopper chelate

5%

N

Total Nitrogen

7%

SO₃

Sulfur trioxide

2,5%

Amino acids

Vegetable origin

2%

Organic acids

3,3

pH

1,24

Density

(kg/l)

Your future harvest in this package!

Wonder Leaf Amino 43
  • Form: Liquid
  • Packaging: 1l, 5 l, 20 l, 1000 l
43%

Amino acids

Vegetable origin

6,7

pH

1,15

Density

(kg/l)

Your future harvest in this package!

Wonder Leaf Mono P 30
  • Form: Liquid
  • Packaging: 1l, 5 l, 20 l, 1000 l
30%

P₂O₅

Phosphorus pentoxide

4%

N

Total Nitrogen

0,5%

B

Boron

0,5%

Zn

Zinc chelate

1%

Amino acids

Vegetable origin

4%

Organic acids

3,5

pH

1,37

Density

(kg/l)

Your future harvest in this package!

BBCH 31-39
Stem elongation

BBCH 31-39
Stem elongation

To disclose in detail this macro stage, it is necessary to indicate that here occurs the formation of second-order growth cones, the formation of the available number of flowers in the inflorescence with the laying down of flower covering organs, the formation of anthers (microsporogenesis) and stigmas (megasporogenesis), the formation of a larger number of synchronously developed productive stems. There is intensive growth of organs in length, formation of ovules and pollen grains.

Applying nitrogen and phosphorus fertilizers can increase the number of flowers in an inflorescence. Although the structural organization of the vascular plant is relatively loose, the development of different parts is well coordinated. Control depends on the movement of chemicals, including nutrients and hormones. An example of correlation is shoot and root growth. The increase in the aerial part is accompanied by an increased need for water, minerals and mechanical support, which are satisfied by the coordinated growth of the root system. Several factors seem to be involved in control, as the shoot and the root affect each other mutually.

The root depends on the shoot for organic nutrients, just as the shoot depends on the root for water and inorganic nutrients, and thus the flow of ordinary nutrients must play a role. However, more specific control can be provided by supplying the nutrients needed in very small quantities. The root depends on the shoot for certain vitamins, and changes in supply reflecting the metabolic state of the above-ground parts can also affect root growth. In addition, hormonal factors affecting cell division pass upward from the root to the stem; although the exact role of hormones has not yet been established with certainty, they may be one of the ways in which the root system can influence the activity of the shoot apex. Secondary thickening control is another important example of growth correlation. As the size of the shoot system increases, the need for both greater mechanical support and enhanced transport of water, minerals, and elements is met by increased coverage of the stem through the activity of the vascular cambium. As a rule, the cambium of trees in temperate zones is most active in spring, when buds are budding and shoots are sprouting, creating a need for nutrients.

Cell division begins on each shoot and then spreads out from it. The terminal bud stimulates the cambium to divide rapidly through the action of two groups of plant hormones: auxins and gibberellins. Inhibition of lateral buds, another example of a correlated growth reaction, illustrates a reaction opposite to that occurring when controlling cambial activity. Lateral buds are generally depressed, as axillary shoots grow slower or do not grow at all, while the terminal bud is active. This so-called apical dominance is responsible for the characteristic unit of trunk growth observed in many conifers and herbaceous plants, such as the mallow. Weaker dominance leads to a form with multiple branching. This fact that the lateral or axillary buds become more active when the terminal bud is removed is evidence of hormonal control.

The flow of auxin from the shoot apex is partially responsible for the inhibition of axillary buds. The nutritional status of the plant also plays a role, as verticillium dominance is strong when mineral supply and light are insufficient. Since the axillary buds are released from inhibition by treatment with substances that stimulate cell division, also called cytokinins, it has been suggested that these substances are also involved in the regulation of kidney activity.

Wonder Leaf Wonder Macro
  • Form: Liquid
  • Packaging: 1l, 5 l, 20 l, 1000 l
10%

N

Total Nitrogen

10%

P₂O₅

Phosphorus pentoxide water soluble

10%

K₂O

Potassium oxide

1%

Organic acids

0,5%

MgO

Magnesium oxide

3%

Amino acids

Vegetable origin

4,3

pH

1,25

Density

(kg/l)

Your future harvest in this package!

Wonder Leaf Wonder Micro
  • Form: Liquid
  • Packaging: 1l, 5 l, 20 l, 1000 l
4%

N

Total Nitrogen

4%

MgO

Magnesium oxide

10%

SO₃

Sulfur trioxide

0,5%

B

Boron

0,5%

Cu

Copper сhelate

0,5%

Zn

Zink chelate

0,6%

Fe

Iron chelat

0,9%

Mn

Manganese chelate

5,2%

Amino acids

Vegetable origin

5%

Organic acids

3,6

pH

1,28

Density

(kg/l)

Your future harvest in this package!

Wonder Leaf Mono Zn 8
  • Form: Liquid
  • Packaging: 1l, 5 l, 20 l, 1000 l
8%

Zn

Zinc chelate

5%

N

Total Nitrogen

10%

SO₃

Sulfur trioxide

2,5%

Amino acids

Vegetable origin

8%

Organic acids

3,9

pH

1,33

Density

(kg/l)

Your future harvest in this package!

Wonder Leaf Mono Mn 11
  • Form: Liquid
  • Packaging: 1l, 5 l, 20 l, 1000 l
11%

Mn

Manganese chelate

2%

N

Total Nitrogen

10%

SO₃

Sulfur trioxide

1,4%

Amino acids

Vegetable origin

3,5

pH

1,41

Density

(kg/l)

Your future harvest in this package!

Wonder Leaf Mono Cu 6
  • Form: Liquid
  • Packaging: 1l, 5 l, 20 l, 1000 l
6%

Cu

Сopper chelate

5%

N

Total Nitrogen

7%

SO₃

Sulfur trioxide

2,5%

Amino acids

Vegetable origin

2%

Organic acids

3,3

pH

1,24

Density

(kg/l)

Your future harvest in this package!

BBCH 51-59
Earing

BBCH 51-59
Earing

In this macro stage, the processes of formation of all the organs of the flower inflorescence are completed, the development from the rudiments of the flowers to their opening takes place. The largest upper internode continues to grow.

Application of complex fertilizers with an emphasis on nitrogen and trace elements – zinc.

From the point of view of development, a flower can be considered as the axis of a shoot of deterministic growth, with the lateral members occupying areas of leaves that differentiate as floral organs — sepals, petals, stamens, and pistils. In transition to flowering, the stem apex undergoes characteristic changes, the most noticeable of which is the shape of the apical region, which is related to the type of structure to be formed, whether it is a single flower, as in a tulip, or a cluster of flowers (inflorescence), as in a lilac. The area of ​​cell division extends to the entire tip, and the RNA content of the terminal cells increases. As a single flower forms, lateral primordia appear higher and higher on the sides of the apical dome, and the entire apex is absorbed in the process, after which apical growth ceases.

Wonder Leaf Wonder Macro
  • Form: Liquid
  • Packaging: 1l, 5 l, 20 l, 1000 l
10%

N

Total Nitrogen

10%

P₂O₅

Phosphorus pentoxide water soluble

10%

K₂O

Potassium oxide

1%

Organic acids

0,5%

MgO

Magnesium oxide

3%

Amino acids

Vegetable origin

4,3

pH

1,25

Density

(kg/l)

Your future harvest in this package!

Wonder Leaf Wonder Micro
  • Form: Liquid
  • Packaging: 1l, 5 l, 20 l, 1000 l
4%

N

Total Nitrogen

4%

MgO

Magnesium oxide

10%

SO₃

Sulfur trioxide

0,5%

B

Boron

0,5%

Cu

Copper сhelate

0,5%

Zn

Zink chelate

0,6%

Fe

Iron chelat

0,9%

Mn

Manganese chelate

5,2%

Amino acids

Vegetable origin

5%

Organic acids

3,6

pH

1,28

Density

(kg/l)

Your future harvest in this package!

Wonder Leaf Mono Mn 11
  • Form: Liquid
  • Packaging: 1l, 5 l, 20 l, 1000 l
11%

Mn

Manganese chelate

2%

N

Total Nitrogen

10%

SO₃

Sulfur trioxide

1,4%

Amino acids

Vegetable origin

3,5

pH

1,41

Density

(kg/l)

Your future harvest in this package!

Wonder Leaf Amino 43
  • Form: Liquid
  • Packaging: 1l, 5 l, 20 l, 1000 l
43%

Amino acids

Vegetable origin

6,7

pH

1,15

Density

(kg/l)

Your future harvest in this package!

Wonder Leaf Green
  • Form: Crystalline
  • Packaging: 25 kg
7%

P₂O₅

Phosphorus pentoxide water soluble

5%

K₂O

Potassium oxide water soluble

16%

SO₃

Sulfur trioxide water soluble

2%

B

Boron water soluble

2%

Zn

Zinc water solubl water soluble

2%

Cu

Сopper water soluble

0,05%

Mo

Molybdenum water soluble

2%

Fe

Iron water soluble water soluble

4%

Mn

Manganese water soluble

15%

Amino acids

Vegetable origin

Your future harvest in this package!

The most important factors in cultivation of grain crops that contribute to increasing productivity include the following ones:

  1. Use of varieties with a high tillering potential and resistance to lodging.
  2. Reaction to an increased level of nitrogen nutrition; operational control and effective weed control.
  3. Pest and disease control; application of modern agricultural machinery.

Cereal spiked crops respond effectively to the application of microfertilizers. In the formation of a low level of grain yield (2-3 t/ha), most soils are affected by a low supply of macronutrients. Despite the introduction of high rates of fertilizers, the lack of one nutrient can lead to a decrease in yield (Justus von Liebig’s law). Sometimes lack of several tens of grams of one of micronutrients inhibits assimilation of other nutrients and stops formation of the crop.

Each of the stages of plant development is characterized by the corresponding requirements for mineral nutrition. The main critical periods in the development of grain crops, when they are most demanding for mineral nutrition, are as follows:

  • emergence of seedlings (VVSN 08-09), because it is necessary to obtain uniform, friendly seedlings with high resistance to adverse environmental factors;
  • tillering (VVSN 21-29), because for winter crops the sugar reserve in the tillering node is a factor of excellent wintering, and for spring cereals it is a factor of high yield due to the formation of productive stems;
  • stem elongation (BBSN 31-36) because spikelets are formed: the more developed spikelets are, the higher the yield;
  • appearance of the flag leaf (VVSN 37-39), because it is a factor in the formation of high-quality grain with high protein content;
  • formation of fruits and seeds (71-79), because this is the period when the process of grain filling is adjusted.

Macronutrients such as nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium and mesoelements such as sulfur and magnesium are of particular importance in the formation of high yields of grain crops .

Macronutrients

Nitrogen (N) is the main element for the formation of amino acids and proteins. Necessary for the growth of vegetative mass. Participates in the processes of plant metabolism.

Phosphorus (P) is involved in energy metabolism. Promotes root growth, formation of generative organs as well as the formation of seeds. Accelerates ripening.

Potassium (K) is an enzyme activator as well as a heat resistance factor. Participates in the accumulation of sugars, protein synthesis. Together with sulfur (S), it affects disease resistance.

Wonder offers to consider the following fertilizers for foliar nutrition which cover a number of aspects in comprehensive manner:

  • Crystalline fertilizers:
  1. Wonder Leaf Blue (N:P:K-10:53:10 + Zn-2 chelate , w/w %);
  2. Wonder Leaf Red (N:P:K-10:20:30 + B-2, w/w %);
  3. Wonder Leaf Yellow (N:P:K-21:21:21 + chelates : Cu-0.5, Mn-0.5, Zn-0.5, w/w %);
  4. Wonder Leaf Violet (N:P:K-30:10:10 + SO3-15, Mo-0.5, w/w %).
  • Liquid:
  1. Wonder Leaf Wonder Macro (N:P:K-10:10:10 + MgO-0.5, amino acids-3, organic acids-1, w/w %).

Mesoelements

Sulfur (S) is an important element of enzymes. Participates in protein synthesis. Lack of sulfur leads to non-assimilation of nitrogen. Signs of sulfur deficiency in cereals are “whitening” of young leaves.

Magnesium ( Mg) is the main element of chlorophyll. Accelerates metabolic processes, promotes absorption of phosphorus, potassium and many other elements. The deficiency can be easily identified as “marble” chlorosis, spreading from the edges of the leaf blade to the middle of old leaves. Due to lack of chlorophyll, growth and development of plants is inhibited.

Wonder suggests considering a fertilizer for foliar nutrition:

  1. Wonder Leaf MgS 16-32 (MgO-16, SO3- 32, Mn-0.007 w/w %).

Microelements

The most important microelements for grain crops are manganese, molybdenum, copper, zinc, boron. They are introduced into soil together with mineral fertilizers, as well as during foliar feeding and pre-sowing treatment of seeds with products containing trace elements. Wonder suggests considering the following fertilizers for foliar nutrition:

  1. Wonder Leaf Mono Mn 11 (Mn-11% chelate);
  2. Wonder Leaf Mono Mo 3 (Mo-3%);
  3. Wonder Leaf Mono Cu 6 (Cu-6% chelate);
  4. Wonder Leaf Mono Zn 8 (Zn-8% chelate);
  5. Wonder Leaf Mono B 11 (B-11%), or Wonder Leaf Mono B 120 (B-9%), or Wonder Leaf Pink (B-20%).

These are applied into soil together with mineral fertilizers, as well as during foliar nutrition and pre-sowing treatment of seeds. For pre-sowing seed treatment, use Wonder Leaf Wonder Micro fertilizer, which contains important microelements for development of the embryo and phytohormones to stimulate energy of germination. Seed treatment application rate is 1.5 l/t of seed material.

Manganese ( Mn) activates oxidation-reduction processes, helps to increase sugar content in plants, thereby ensuring frost and winter resistance (winter crops), affects harvest and its quality. It’s from tillering to earing development phases, when plants absorb manganese the most. In practice of foliar feeding of grain crops, this element is applied on seeds as well as during the period of formation of the first node on the stem. This significantly increases yield and its quality. Lack of manganese manifests itself in form of pale yellow stripes and brown spots on the leaves: plants are weak and field is spotted and uneven. This is caused by high soil pH, sandy and highly humus soils.

Copper (Cu) affects photosynthesis, formation of generative organs, synthesis of lignin in cell walls, increases resistance to diseases, lodging, drought, heat and winter resistance, promotes better assimilation of nitrogen by plants. It’s from tillering to earing development phases, when plants absorb copper the most.. Its lack is manifested in the form of “white plague of cereals”, when upper part of the ear deforms, turns yellow and dries up without the grain being formed. The tips of the young leaves turn curly and dry, but the old leaves remain green. Plants lag behind in growth. Lack of copper is observed on calcified and alkaline soils, with high content of humus and at high temperature, increased rates of nitrogen fertilization (more than 100 kg/ha per year).

Boron (B) promotes  synthesis of chlorophyll, affects formation of generative organs, development of root system, especially young roots. It practically does not move from the lower part of the plants to the point of growth, which means it is not being reused. Plants usually need it the most during the germination phase, so it is better to apply boron containing fertilizers during seeds treatment. Boron deficiency may be observed on limed soils and after applying high rates of nitrogen and potassium fertilizers.

Zinc ( Zn) is involved in many physiological processes, it promotes internode growth, increases heat, drought and frost resistance of plants, protein content in grain, plant resistance to damage caused by diseases. Its deficiency is manifested in the form of pale yellow stripes on the leaves in parallel to the leaf veins. Plants turn yellow or orange in the early stages of ontogenesis, their growth and development are inhibited. It is necessary to control availability of zinc in winter wheat when growing it on soils with high content of humus and phosphorus, when applying high rates of nitrogen and phosphorus fertilizers, liming as well as low temperatures.

Among the methods of increasing grain yield and quality, foliar nutrition is of great importance. This technique has been introduced into the technological process of many crops growing it also has been long ago known in crop production. In a plant as a whole organism, all important processes, in particular root and foliar nutrition, are closely related. Therefore, foliar nutrition should be considered as a technological technique that, under certain conditions, increases effectiveness of fertilizers applied to the soil. By increasing nitrogen content in plants, the process of photosynthesis is activated, and the natural aging of leaves, in particular the apical leaves, is delayed. It is believed that in the formation and redistribution of assimilants in the grain harvest, 45% belongs to the apical leaf, 35% to the sub-apical leaf, and 20% to the ear.

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