Sunflower - WONDER

Fertilizer application rates and recommendation for sunflower

  • To exact determination and calculation the required amount of fertilizer application, it is recommended to conduct soil agrochemical analysis, taking into account the planned yield indicators
  • We recommend to discuss nutritional special aspects with your regional manager

BBCH 00
Seed processing

BBCH 14-19
4 or more true leaves

BBCH 31-39
Stem elongation

BBCH 00
Seed processing

BBCH 00
Seed processing

In this macro stage, you need to pay attention to the germination of the seeds. Variety similarity is 60-80%, similarity of hybrids is 92-98%. Field similarity is influenced by such factors as the selection of high-quality seed, quality seedbed preparation, seeding technique, seed treatment with micronutrients and favorable weather conditions.

Germination is the beginning of plant development. Its duration starts from dormancy to the appearance of sprouts, that is, until the sheath of the first leaf with a shoot appears on the soil surface. During seed germination, water is absorbed by the embryo, resulting in rehydration and cell expansion. Soon after water absorption or absorption begins, the respiration rate increases, and various metabolic processes that had been suspended or greatly reduced during the resting period are restored. These events are associated with structural changes in organelles, namely membrane bodies responsible for metabolism, in embryonic cells.

Due to the fact that the spare materials are partially in an insoluble form, namely in the form of starch grains, protein granules, lipid droplets, etc., that is, in fact, most of the early metabolism of seedlings is associated with the mobilization of these materials and the delivery or movement of products to the active sites. Stocks outside the embryo are digested by enzymes secreted by the embryo, and in some cases also by special endosperm cells.

Active embryo growth, except that resulting from swelling, usually begins with the emergence of the primary root, known as the seed root, although in some species (e.g., coconut) a shoot or peruncle emerges first. Early growth depends mainly on cell expansion, but within a short time cell division begins in the root and young shoot, and then there is growth and subsequent formation of organs, this stage is also called organogenesis, it is based on the usual combination of increasing cell number and increasing individual cells.

Wonder Leaf Wonder Micro
  • Form: Liquid
  • Packaging: 1l, 5 l, 20 l, 1000 l
4%

N

Total Nitrogen

4%

MgO

Magnesium oxide

10%

SO₃

Sulfur trioxide

0,5%

B

Boron

0,5%

Cu

Copper сhelate

0,5%

Zn

Zink chelate

0,6%

Fe

Iron chelat

0,9%

Mn

Manganese chelate

5,2%

Amino acids

Vegetable origin

5%

Organic acids

3,6

pH

1,28

Density

(kg/l)

Your future harvest in this package!

BBCH 14-19
4 or more true leaves

BBCH 14-19
4 or more true leaves

In this macro stage occurs development from the first true leaf and continues up to nine or more true leaves. At this stage, rudimentary stem nodes and internodes are established.

The plant needs sufficient supplies of macronutrients such as phosphorus and potassium. When exposed to environmental and anthropogenic environments, amino acids must be used to eliminate them. Leaves originate on the sides of the top of the shoot. A local concentration of cell divisions marks the very beginning of the leaf, then these cells enlarge to form a nipple-shaped structure, also called a leaf support.

Leaf support cells can be derived from the sheath or from the sheath and the casing. After this process, the support becomes more and more flattened in the transverse plane due to laterally oriented cell divisions and subsequent expansion on both sides. The zones of separation are the marginal meristems, the activity of which gives the leaf its lamellar shape. In each meristem, the outer array of cells or marginal initials contributes to the epidermal layers by prolonged separation.

The cells below, the submarginal initials, provide the tissue of the inner part of the leaf. Usually, a certain number of cell layers is defined in the mesophyll, which is the parenchyma between the epidermal layers of leaves.

Cell division is not limited to the region of marginal meristems, but continues throughout the leaf in each of the layers, always in the same plane, until the final cell number is approached. Then the rate decreases, terminating in different layers at different times. Partitioning usually ends first in the epidermis, then in the lower layers of the leaf mesophyll.

Wonder Leaf Wonder Macro
  • Form: Liquid
  • Packaging: 1l, 5 l, 20 l, 1000 l
10%

N

Total Nitrogen

10%

P₂O₅

Phosphorus pentoxide water soluble

10%

K₂O

Potassium oxide

1%

Organic acids

0,5%

MgO

Magnesium oxide

3%

Amino acids

Vegetable origin

4,3

pH

1,25

Density

(kg/l)

Your future harvest in this package!

Wonder Leaf Wonder Micro
  • Form: Liquid
  • Packaging: 1l, 5 l, 20 l, 1000 l
4%

N

Total Nitrogen

4%

MgO

Magnesium oxide

10%

SO₃

Sulfur trioxide

0,5%

B

Boron

0,5%

Cu

Copper сhelate

0,5%

Zn

Zink chelate

0,6%

Fe

Iron chelat

0,9%

Mn

Manganese chelate

5,2%

Amino acids

Vegetable origin

5%

Organic acids

3,6

pH

1,28

Density

(kg/l)

Your future harvest in this package!

Wonder Leaf Mono Zn 8
  • Form: Liquid
  • Packaging: 1l, 5 l, 20 l, 1000 l
8%

Zn

Zinc chelate

5%

N

Total Nitrogen

10%

SO₃

Sulfur trioxide

2,5%

Amino acids

Vegetable origin

8%

Organic acids

3,9

pH

1,33

Density

(kg/l)

Your future harvest in this package!

Wonder Leaf Amino 43
  • Form: Liquid
  • Packaging: 1l, 5 l, 20 l, 1000 l
43%

Amino acids

Vegetable origin

6,7

pH

1,15

Density

(kg/l)

Your future harvest in this package!

Wonder Leaf Mono P 30
  • Form: Liquid
  • Packaging: 1l, 5 l, 20 l, 1000 l
30%

P₂O₅

Phosphorus pentoxide

4%

N

Total Nitrogen

0,5%

B

Boron

0,5%

Zn

Zinc chelate

1%

Amino acids

Vegetable origin

4%

Organic acids

3,5

pH

1,37

Density

(kg/l)

Your future harvest in this package!

BBCH 31-39
Stem elongation

BBCH 31-39
Stem elongation

To disclose in detail this macro stage, it is necessary to indicate that here occurs the formation of second-order growth cones, the formation of the available number of flowers in the inflorescence with the laying down of flower covering organs, the formation of anthers (microsporogenesis) and stigmas (megasporogenesis), the formation of a larger number of synchronously developed productive stems. There is intensive growth of organs in length, formation of ovules and pollen grains.

Applying nitrogen and phosphorus fertilizers can increase the number of flowers in an inflorescence. Although the structural organization of the vascular plant is relatively loose, the development of different parts is well coordinated. Control depends on the movement of chemicals, including nutrients and hormones. An example of correlation is shoot and root growth. The increase in the aerial part is accompanied by an increased need for water, minerals and mechanical support, which are satisfied by the coordinated growth of the root system. Several factors seem to be involved in control, as the shoot and the root affect each other mutually.

The root depends on the shoot for organic nutrients, just as the shoot depends on the root for water and inorganic nutrients, and thus the flow of ordinary nutrients must play a role. However, more specific control can be provided by supplying the nutrients needed in very small quantities. The root depends on the shoot for certain vitamins, and changes in supply reflecting the metabolic state of the above-ground parts can also affect root growth. In addition, hormonal factors affecting cell division pass upward from the root to the stem; although the exact role of hormones has not yet been established with certainty, they may be one of the ways in which the root system can influence the activity of the shoot apex. Secondary thickening control is another important example of growth correlation. As the size of the shoot system increases, the need for both greater mechanical support and enhanced transport of water, minerals, and elements is met by increased coverage of the stem through the activity of the vascular cambium. As a rule, the cambium of trees in temperate zones is most active in spring, when buds are budding and shoots are sprouting, creating a need for nutrients.

Cell division begins on each shoot and then spreads out from it. The terminal bud stimulates the cambium to divide rapidly through the action of two groups of plant hormones: auxins and gibberellins. Inhibition of lateral buds, another example of a correlated growth reaction, illustrates a reaction opposite to that occurring when controlling cambial activity. Lateral buds are generally depressed, as axillary shoots grow slower or do not grow at all, while the terminal bud is active. This so-called apical dominance is responsible for the characteristic unit of trunk growth observed in many conifers and herbaceous plants, such as the mallow. Weaker dominance leads to a form with multiple branching. This fact that the lateral or axillary buds become more active when the terminal bud is removed is evidence of hormonal control. The flow of auxin from the shoot apex is partially responsible for the inhibition of axillary buds.

The nutritional status of the plant also plays a role, as verticillium dominance is strong when mineral supply and light are insufficient. Since the axillary buds are released from inhibition by treatment with substances that stimulate cell division, also called cytokinins, it has been suggested that these substances are also involved in the regulation of kidney activity.

Wonder Leaf Wonder Macro
  • Form: Liquid
  • Packaging: 1l, 5 l, 20 l, 1000 l
10%

N

Total Nitrogen

10%

P₂O₅

Phosphorus pentoxide water soluble

10%

K₂O

Potassium oxide

1%

Organic acids

0,5%

MgO

Magnesium oxide

3%

Amino acids

Vegetable origin

4,3

pH

1,25

Density

(kg/l)

Your future harvest in this package!

Wonder Leaf Wonder Micro
  • Form: Liquid
  • Packaging: 1l, 5 l, 20 l, 1000 l
4%

N

Total Nitrogen

4%

MgO

Magnesium oxide

10%

SO₃

Sulfur trioxide

0,5%

B

Boron

0,5%

Cu

Copper сhelate

0,5%

Zn

Zink chelate

0,6%

Fe

Iron chelat

0,9%

Mn

Manganese chelate

5,2%

Amino acids

Vegetable origin

5%

Organic acids

3,6

pH

1,28

Density

(kg/l)

Your future harvest in this package!

Wonder Leaf Mono Zn 8
  • Form: Liquid
  • Packaging: 1l, 5 l, 20 l, 1000 l
8%

Zn

Zinc chelate

5%

N

Total Nitrogen

10%

SO₃

Sulfur trioxide

2,5%

Amino acids

Vegetable origin

8%

Organic acids

3,9

pH

1,33

Density

(kg/l)

Your future harvest in this package!

Wonder Leaf Amino 43
  • Form: Liquid
  • Packaging: 1l, 5 l, 20 l, 1000 l
43%

Amino acids

Vegetable origin

6,7

pH

1,15

Density

(kg/l)

Your future harvest in this package!

Wonder Leaf Mono B 11
  • Form: Liquid
  • Packaging: 1l, 5 l, 20 l, 1000 l
11%

B

Boron

5%

N

Total Nitrogen

1%

Aminoacids

Vegetable origin

7,9

pH

1,37

Density

(kg/l)

Your future harvest in this package!

During the growing season, the sunflower absorbs nutrients unevenly. So, during the first month of vegetation, it uses 15% of nitrogen, 10% of phosphorus and 10% of potassium, although the accumulation of organic matter during this time does not exceed 5% of the maximum value. Despite the fact that the sunflower grows slowly at the initial stage (2-3 pairs of leaves), a basket is laid during this period. In the next 1.5 months, when the basket is formed, and until the end of flowering, this culture intensively consumes nutrients, assimilates 80% of nitrogen, 70% of phosphorus and 50% of potassium. The last amount of potassium (40%) is absorbed from the phase of filling of ovules to the beginning of maturity. After the formation of baskets is completed, the assimilation of nutrients decreases.

During the sunflower growing season, there are several critical periods of assimilation of nutrients. In the initial stages, before the formation of baskets, sunflower develops quite slowly and does not require a large amount of nutrients. Excessive nitrogen nutrition at the initial stage of development leads to a decrease in yield. The need for nitrogen nutrition increases during the phase of basket formation. This period is also the most important in providing sunflower plants with trace elements, especially boron, because its lack sharply reduces yield.

Balanced nutrition of sunflower with trace elements is extremely important for increasing grain production. According to the Institute of Agriculture of the Steppe Zone of the National Academy of Sciences , sunflower is demanding of trace elements, as evidenced by their significant accumulation in plants. Zinc accumulates the most in the seeds and manganese in the vegetative part.

The critical periods for feeding sunflower with trace elements are the phases of 2-3 pairs of leaves and budding (8-10 pairs of leaves ). Lack of boron, zinc, and manganese in the first period leads to insufficient harvest. Molybdenum, copper and iron are also important for sunflower.

Wonder Leaf Mono B 11 (B-11%), or Wonder Leaf Mono B 120 (B-9%) or Wonder Leaf Pink (B-20%) significantly affects carbohydrate and protein metabolism and other biochemical processes in plants. Due to its lack, the transition of carbohydrates and starch from leaves to other organs is disrupted, as a result of which the process of photosynthesis is inhibited, the root system is not sufficiently supplied with carbohydrates, which impairs its development. Boron plays an important role in the development of reproductive organs. It almost does not move from the lower part of the plant to the point of growth, that is, it cannot be reused. This trace element increases drought resistance and salt resistance of plants. Boron deficiency is aggravated by excessive application of potash fertilizers and lime. Boron deficiency is accompanied by disturbance of carbohydrate and protein metabolism. The main need of sunflower for boron (80% of the total amount) is observed in the phase of 5 pairs of leaves.

Wonder Leaf Mono Mn 11 (Mn-11% chelate) is important because it participates in redox reactions in plant cells and is associated with the activity of oxidizing enzymes – oxidase. In case of lack of this element, the intensity of oxidation-reduction processes and synthesis of organic substances in plants decreases.

Manganese helps substances move through plant organs. It plays an important role in the processes of assimilation of ammonium and nitrate nitrogen by plants. With ammonium feeding, it acts as a strong oxidizing agent, and with nitrate feeding – as a strong reducing agent. Therefore, in the case of manganese deficiency, the recovery of nitrate nitrogen is disturbed, which leads to the accumulation of nitrates in plant tissues.

Manganese participates not only in the process of photosynthesis, but also in the synthesis of vitamin C. In case of manganese deficiency, the synthesis of organic substances decreases, the chlorophyll content  in plants decreases which leads to chlorosis. Low air humidity, low soil temperature and gloomy weather prevent the assimilation of manganese. A lack of manganese is observed on soils with a neutral or alkaline reaction, and its availability is high on acidic soils.

Wonder Leaf Mono Zn 8 (Zn-8% chelate) affects the total content of carbohydrates, starch and protein substances. It plays a major role in redox reactions of respiration, regulation of ATP synthesis , exchange of auxins and RNA .

Zinc has a positive effect on the heat resistance of plants and the formation of grains in dry conditions, that is, it contributes to the accumulation of organic acids in flowers which act as protective substances. In addition, this element increases the cold resistance of plants.

With a lack of zinc, protein synthesis is disrupted and its content in plants decreases. This is explained by the fact that due to its lack, amides and amino acids, that is, soluble nitrogen compounds, accumulate in plants. High levels of phosphorus and lime, low soil temperature prevent the assimilation of zinc.

Wonder Leaf Mono Fe 10 (Fe-8.8% chelate) takes an active part in metabolic processes, is part of enzymes involved in redox reactions: peroxidases, catalases, cytochrome oxidases, NAD-H-cytochrome-C reductase, activates respiration, affects the formation of chlorophyll. Lack of iron leads to a decrease in the intensity of photosynthesis, chlorosis appears on young plants. High soil moisture prevents the assimilation of the element.

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